Posted by: Mehrnaz | November 26, 2009

supplication of Imam Sajjad On Day of ARAFAH

In the name of God
(Saheefa Sajjadeeyah)Supplication (47)

Praise belongs to ALLAH,Lord of the worlds! O ALLAH,to Thee belongs praise!Originator of the heavens and the earth!Possessor of majesty and munificence!Lord of lords!Object of worship of every worshiper! Creator of every creature!Inheritor of all things!)There is nothing like Him( , knowledge of nothing escapes Him, He encompasses everything,and He is watchful over everything.

Thou art ALLAH,there is no god but Thou, the Unique,the Alone, the Single,the Isolated.

Thou art ALLAH,there is no god but Thou, the Generous,the Generously Bestowing, the All-mighty,the Mightily Exalted, the Magnificent,the Magnificently Magnified.

Thou art ALLAH,there is no god but Thou, the All-high,the Sublimely High,the Strong in prowess Thou art ALLAH,there is no god but Thou, the All-merciful,the All-compassionate, the All-knowing,the All-wise.

Thou art ALLAH,there is no god but Thou, the All-hearing,the All-seeing, the Eternal,the All-aware.

Thou art ALLAH,there is no god but Thou, the Generous,the Most Generous, the Everlasting,the Most Everlasting.

Thou art ALLAH,there is no god but Thou, the First before every one, the Last after every number.Thou art ALLAH,there is no god but Thou, the Close in His highness, the High in His closeness.

Thou art ALLAH,there is no god but Thou, Possessor of radiance and glory,magnificence and praise.Thou art ALLAH,there is no god but Thou.

Thou hast brought forth the things without root, formed what Thou hast formed without exemplar,and riginated the originated things without imitation.

It is Thou who hast ordained each thing with an ordination, eased each thing with an easing,and governed everything below Thyself with a governing.

It is Thou whom no associate helps with Thy creation and no vizier aids in Thy command.Thou hast no witness and no equal.

It is Thou who willed,and what Thou willed was unfailing, who decreed,and what Thou decreed was just, who decided,and what Thou decided was fair.

It is Thou whom place does not contain, before whose authority no authority stands up,and whom no proof or explication can thwart.

It is Thou who hast counted everything in numbers, appointed for everything a term,and ordained everything with an ordination.

It is Thou before whose selfness imaginations fall short, before whose HOWNESS understandings have no incapacity,and the place of whose WHERENESS eyes perceive not.

It is Thou who hast no bounds,lest Thou be bounded, who art not exemplified,lest Thou be found, who dost not beget,lest Thou be begotten.

It is Thou with whom there is no opposite,lest it contend with Thee, who hast no equal,lest it vie with Thee, who hast no rival,lest it resist Thee.

It is Thou who art He who began,devised, brought forth,originated,and made well all that He made.Glory be to Thee!How majestic is Thy station!How high Thy place among the places! .

How cleanly Thy Separator cleaves with the truth! Glory be to Thee! The Gentle how gentle Thou art!The Clement how clement Thou art!The Wise how knowing Thou art! Glory be to Thee!The King how invincible Thou art!The Munificent how full of plenty Thou art!The Elevated how elevated Thou art!Possessor of radiance and glory, magnificence and praise! Glory be to Thee!Thou hast stretched forth Thy hand with good things, and from Thee guidance has come to be known, so he who begs from Thee religion or this world will find Thee.

Glory be to Thee!Whatever passes in Thy knowledge is subjected to Thee, all below Thy Throne are humbled before Thy mightiness,and every one of Thy creatures follows Thee in submission.

Glory be to Thee!Thou art not sensed,nor touched, nor felt,nor beguiled, nor held back,nor challenged, nor kept up with,nor resisted, nor deceived,nor circumvented.

Glory be to Thee!Thy path is smooth ground, Thy command right guidance,and Thou art a living,eternal refuge.

Glory be to Thee!Thy word is decisive, Thy decree unfailing, Thy will resolute.Glory be to Thee!None can reject Thy wish, none can change Thy words. Glory be to Thee! , Out-dazzling in signs, Creator of the heavens, Author of the spirits! To Thee belongs praise,a praise that will be permanent with Thy permanence!To Thee belongs praise,a praise everlasting through Thy favor! To Thee belongs praise,a praise that will parallel Thy benefaction! To Thee belongs praise,a praise that will increase Thy good pleasure! To Thee belongs praise,a praise along with the praise of every praiser and a thanksgiving before which falls

short the thanksgiving of every thanks-giver; a praise which is suitable for none but Thee and through which nearness is sought to none but Thee; a praise which will make permanent the first ]bounty[and call forth the permanence of the last; a praise which will multiply through recurrence of times and increase through successive doublings; a praise which the guardians will not be able to number and which exceeds what the writers number in Thy Book; a praise which will counterbalance Thy glorious Throne and equal Thy elevated Footstool; a praise whose reward with Thee will be complete and whose recompense will comprise every recompense; a praise whose outward conforms to its inward,and whose inward conforms to correct intention; a praise with whose like no creature has praised Thee and whose excellence none knows but Thou; a praise in which he who strives to multiply Thy praise will be helped and he who draws the bow to the utmost in fulfilling it will be confirmed; a praise which will gather all the praise which Thou hast created and tie together all which Thou wilt afterwards create; a praise than which no praise is nearer to Thy word and than which none is greater from any who praise Thee; a praise whose fullness will obligate increase through Thy generosity and to which Thou wilt join increase after increase as graciousness from Thee; a praise that will befit the generosity of Thy face and meet the might of Thy majesty! My Lord,bless MUHAMMAD and the Household of MUHAMMAD, the distinguished,the chosen, the honored,the brought nigh, with the most excellent of Thy blessings, benedict him with the most complete of Thy benedictions,and have mercy upon him with the most enjoyable of Thy mercies! My Lord,bless MUHAMMAD and his Household with a fruitful blessing, more fruitful than which there is no blessing! Bless him with a growing blessing, more growing than which there is no blessing!And bless him with a pleasing blessing, beyond which there is no blessing! My Lord,bless MUHAMMAD and his Household with a blessing which will please him and increase his good pleasure!Bless him with a blessing which will please Thee and increase Thy good pleasure toward him! And bless him with a blessing through other than which Thou wilt not be pleased for him,and for which Thou seest no one else worthy! My Lord,bless MUHAMMAD and his Household with a blessing which will pass beyond Thy good pleasure, be continuous in its continuity through Thy subsistence,and never be spent,just as Thy words will never be spent! My Lord,bless MUHAMMAD and his Household with a blessing which will tie together the blessings of Thy angels,Thy prophets,Thy messengers,and those who obey Thee, comprise the blessings of Thy servants,JINN or mankind,and those worthy of Thy response,and bring together the blessings of every one of the kinds of Thy creatures which Thou hast sown and authored! My Lord,bless MUHAMMAD and his Household with a blessing which will encompass every blessing,bygone and new!Bless him and his Household with a blessing which is pleasing to Thee and everyone below Thee and will bring forth with all that a blessing with which Thou wilt multiply those blessings and increase them through the recurrence of days with an increasing in multiples which none can count but Thou! My Lord,bless the best of his Household,those whom Thou hast chosen for Thy command, appointed the treasurers of Thy knowledge, the guardians of Thy religion, Thy vicegerents in Thy earth, and Thy arguments against Thy servants, purified from uncleanness and defilement through a purification by Thy desire,and made the mediation to Thee and the road to Thy Garden! My Lord,bless MUHAMMAD and his Household with a blessing which makes plentiful Thy gifts and generosity, perfects for them Thy bestowals and awards,and fills out their share of Thy kindly acts and benefits! My Lord,bless him and his Household with a blessing whose first has no term, whose term has no limit,and whose last has no utmost end! My Lord,bless them to the weight of Thy Throne and all below it, the amount that fills the heavens and all above them, the number of Thy earths and all below and between them, a blessing that will bring them near to Thee in proximity, please Thee and them , and be joined to its likes forever! O ALLAH,surely Thou hast confirmed Thy religion in all times with an IMAM whom Thou hast set up as a guidepost to Thy servants and a lighthouse in Thy lands, after his cord has been joined to Thy cord! Thou hast appointed him the means to Thy good pleasure, made obeying him obligatory,cautioned against disobeying him, and commanded following his commands, abandoning his prohibitions, and that no forward-goer go ahead of him orback-keeper keep back from him!So he is the preservation of the shelter-seekers, the

cave of the faithful, the handhold of the adherents,and the radiance of the worlds! So inspire Thy guardian to give thanks for that in which Thou hast favored him, inspire us with the like concerning him, grant him an authority from Thee to help him, open for him an easy opening, aid him with Thy mightiest pillar, brace up his back, strengthen his arm, guard him with Thy eye, defend him with Thy safeguarding, help him with Thy angels,and assist him with Thy most victorious troops! Through him establish Thy Book,Thy bounds,Thy laws,and the norms of Thy Messenger’s SUNNA (Thy blessings,O ALLAH,be upon him and his Household) ,bring to life the guideposts of Thy religion,deadened by the wrongdoers, burnish the rust of injustice from Thy way, sift the adversity from Thy road, eliminate those who deviate from Thy path,and erase those who seek crookedness in Thy straightness! Make his side mild toward Thy friends, stretch forth his hand over Thy enemies, give us his clemency,his mercy,his tenderness,his sympathy, and make us his hearers and obeyers, strivers toward his good pleasure, assistants in helping him and defending him,and brought near through that to Thee and Thy Messenger (Thy blessings,O ALLAH,be upon him and his Household).

O ALLAH,and bless the friends [of the IMAMs] , the confessors of their station, thekeepers to their course, the pursuers of their tracks, the clingers to their handhold, the adherents to their guardianship, the followers of their IMAMATE, the submitters to their command, the strivers to obey them, the awaiters of their days, the directors of their eyes toward them, with blessings blessed, pure,growing, fresh,and fragrant! Give them and their spirits peace, bring together their affair in reverential fear, set right their situations, turn toward them, Surely Thou art Ever-turning,All-compassionate and the Best of forgivers,and place us with them in the Abode of Peace,through Thy mercy,O Most Merciful of the merciful! O ALLAH,this is the Day of’ A’RAFA, a day which Thou hast made noble,given honor,and magnified.

Within it Thou hast spread Thy mercy, showed kindness through Thy pardon,and made plentiful Thy giving,and by it Thou hast been bounteous toward Thy servants.

O ALLAH,I am Thy servant whom Thou favored before creating him and after creating him.

Thou madest him one of those whom Thou guided to Thy religion, gavest success in fulfilling Thy right, preserved through Thy cord, included within Thy party,and directed aright to befriend Thy friends and show enmity to Thine enemies.

Then Thou commanded him,but he did not follow Thy commands, Thou restricted Him,but he did not heed Thy restrictions, Thou prohibited him from disobedience toward Thee, but he broke Thy command by doing what Thou hadst prohibited, not in contention with Thee,nor to display pride toward Thee; on the contrary, his caprice

called him to that which Thou hadst set apart and cautioned against,and he was helped in that by Thy enemy and his enemy.

So he went ahead with it knowing Thy threat, hoping for Thy pardon, and relying upon Thy forbearance, though he was the most obligated of Thy servants given Thy kindness toward him not to do so.

Here I am,then,before Thee, despised,lowly,humble, abject,fearful, confessing the dreadful sins with which I am burdened and the great offenses that I have committed, seeking sanctuary in Thy forgiveness, asking shelter in Thy mercy, and certain that no sanctuary-giver will give me sanctuary from Thee and no withholder will hold me back from Thee.

So act kindly toward me,just as Thou actest kindly by Thy shielding him who commits sins, be munificent toward me,just as Thou art munificent by pardoning him who throws himself before Thee, and show kindness to me,just as it is nothing great for Thee to show kindness by forgiving him who expectantly hopes in Thee! Appoint for me in this day an allotment through which I may attain a share of Thy good pleasure,and send me not back destitute of that with which Thy worshipers return from among Thy servants! Though I have not forwarded the righteous deeds which they have forwarded, I have forwarded the profession of Thy Unity and the negation from Thee of opposites,rivals,and likenesses, I have come to Thee by the gateways by which Thou hast commanded that people come,and I have sought nearness to Thee through that without seeking nearness through which none gains nearness to Thee.

Then I followed all this with repeated turning toward Thee, lowliness and

abasement before Thee, opinion of Thee,and trust in what is with Thee; and to that I coupled hope in Thee,since the one who hopes in Thee is seldom disappointed! I asked Thee with the asking of one vile,lowly,pitiful,poor,fearful, seeking sanctuary; all that in fear and pleading seeking refuge and asking shelter, not presumptuous through the pride of the proud, nor exalting myself with the boldness of the obedient, nor presumptuous of the intercession of the interceders.

For I am still the least of the least and the lowliest of the lowly, like a dust mote or less! O He who does not hurry the evildoers nor restrain those living in ease!O He who shows kindness through releasing the stumblers and gratuitous bounty through respiting the offenders! I am the evildoer,the confessor,the offender,the stumbler! I am he who was audacious toward Thee as one insolent! I am he who disobeyed Thee

with forethought! I am he who hid myself from Thy servants and blatantly showed myself to Thee! I am he who was awed by Thy servants and felt secure from Thee! I am he who dreaded not Thy penalty and feared not Thy severity! I am the offender against himself! I am the hostage to his own affliction! I am short in shame! I am long in suffering! By the right of him whom Thou hast distinguished among Thy creation and by him whom Thou hast chosen for Thyself!By the right of him whom Thou hast selected from among Thy creatures and by him whom Thou hast picked for Thy task! By the right of him the obeying of whom Thou hast joined to obeying Thee,and by him the disobeying of whom Thou hast made like disobeying Thee! And by the right of him whose friendship Thou hast bound to Thy friendship and by him whose enmity Thou hast linked to Thine enmity! Shield me in this day of mine,by that through which Thou shieldest him who prays fervently to Thee while disavowing and him who seeks refuge in Thy forgiveness while repenting! Attend to me with that through which Thou attendest to the people of obedience toward Thee,proximity to Thee,and rank with Thee! Single me out,as Thou singlest him out who fulfills Thy covenant, fatigues himself for Thy sake alone,and exerts himself in Thy good pleasure! Take me not to task for my neglect in respect to Thee, my transgressing the limit in Thy bounds,and stepping outside Thy ordinances! Draw me not on little by little by granting me a respite, like the drawing on little by little of him who withholds from me the good he has by not sharing with Thee in letting favor down upon me! Arouse me from the sleep of the heedless, the slumber of the prodigal,and the dozing of the forsaken! Take my heart to that in which Thou hast

employed the devout, enthralled the worshipers,and rescued the remiss! Give me refuge from that which will keep me far from Thee, come between me and my share from Thee,and bar me from that which I strive for in Thee! Make easy for me the road of good deeds toward Thee; racing to them from where Thou hast commanded, and coveting them as Thou desirest! Efface me not along with those whom Thou effacest for thinking lightly of what Thou hast promised! Destroy me not with those whom Thou destroyest for exposing themselves to Thy hate! Annihilate me not among those whom Thou annihilatest for deviating from Thy roads! Deliver me from the floods of trial, save me from the gullets of affliction,and grant me sanctuary from being seized by respite!

Come between me and the enemy who misguides me, the caprice which ruins me,and the failing which overcomes me! Turn not away from me with the turning away in wrath from one with whom Thou art not pleased! Let me not lose heart in expecting from Thee,lest I be overcome by despair of Thy mercy! Grant me not that which I can not endure,lest Thou weighest me down with the surplus of Thy love which Thou loadest upon me! Send me not from Thy hand,the sending of him who possesses no good, toward whom Thou hast no need,and who turns not back ]to Thee[! Cast me not with the casting of him who has fallen from the eye of Thy regard and been wrapped in degradation from Thee! Rather take my hand ]and save me[from the falling of the stumblers, the disquiet of the deviators, the slip of those deluded,and the plight of the perishers! Release me from that with which Thou hast afflicted the ranks of Thy servants and handmaids and make me reach the utmost degrees of him about whom Thou art concerned, towards whom Thou showest favor,and with whom Thou art pleased, so that Thou lettest him live as one praiseworthy and takest him to Thee as one felicitous! Collar me with the collar of abstaining from that which makes good deeds fail and takes away blessings! Impart to my heart restraint before ugly works of evil and disgraceful misdeeds! Divert me not by that which I can not reach except through Thee from doing that which alone makes Thee pleased with me! Root out from my heart the love of this vile world,which keeps from everything which is with Thee, bars from seeking the mediation to Thee,and distracts from striving for nearness to Thee! Embellish for me solitude in prayer whispered to Thee by night and by day!

Give me a preservation which will bring me close to dread of Thee, cut me off from

committing things made unlawful by Thee,and spare me from captivation by dreadful

sins! Give me purification from the defilement of disobedience, take away from me the filth of offenses, dress me in the dress of Thy well-being, cloak me in the cloak of Thy release, wrap me in Thy ample favors,and clothe me in Thy bounty and Thy

graciousness Strengthen me with Thy giving success and Thy pointing the right way, help me toward righteous intention,pleasing words,and approved works, and entrust me not to my force and my strength in place of Thy force and Thy strength! Degrade me not on the day Thou raisest me up to meet Thee, disgrace me not before Thy friends, make me not forget remembering Thee, take not away from me thanking

Thee, but enjoin it upon me in states of inattention when the ignorant are heedless of Thy boons,and inspire me to laud what Thou hast done for me and confess to what Thou hast conferred upon me! Place my beseeching Thee above the beseeching of the beseechers and my praise of Thee above the praise of the praisers! Abandon me not with my neediness for Thee, destroy me not for what I have done for Thee, and

slap not my brow with that with which Thou slappest the brow of those who contend with Thee, for I am submitted to Thee.

I know that the argument is Thine, that Thou art closest to bounty, most accustomed to beneficence, worthy of reverent fear, and worthy of forgiveness, that Thou art closer to pardoning than to punishing,and that Thou art nearer to covering over than to making notorious! Let me live an agreeable life that will tie together what I want and reach what I love while I not bring what Thou dislikest and not commit what Thou hast prohibited;and make me die the death of him whose light runs before him and on his right hand! Abase me before Thyself and exalt me before Thy creatures, lower me when I am alone with Thee and raise me among Thy servants, free me from need for him who has no need of me and increase me in neediness and poverty toward Thee!

Give me refuge from the gloating of enemies, the arrival of affliction, lowliness and suffering Shield me in what Thou seest from me,the shielding of him who would have power over violence had he no clemency,and would seize for misdeeds had he no lack of haste! When Thou desirest for a people a trial or an evil,deliver me from it,for I seek Thy shelter;and since Thou hast not stood me in the station of disgrace in this world of Thine,stand me not in such a station in the next world of Thine! Couple for me the beginnings of Thy kindnesses with their ends and the ancient of Thy benefits with the freshly risen!Prolong not my term with a prolonging through which my heart will harden! Strike me not with a striking that will take away my radiance!Visit me not with a meanness that will diminish my worth or a deficiency that will keep my rank unknown!

Frighten me not with a fright by which I will despair or a terror through which I will dread, but make me stand in awe of Thy threat, take precautions against Thy leaving no excuses and Thy warning,and tremble at the recitation of Thy verses! Fill my night with life by keeping me awake therein for worshiping Thee, solitude with vigil for Thee, exclusive devotion to reliance upon Thee, setting my needs before Thee,and imploring that Thou wilt set my neck free from the Fire and grant me sanctuary from Thychastisement,within which its inhabitants dwell! Leave me not blindly wandering in my insolence or inattentive in my perplexity for a time, make me not an admonition to him who takes admonishment, a punishment exemplary for him who takes heed, a trial for him who observes, devise not against me along with those against whom Thou devisest, replace me not with another, change not my name, transform not my body, appoint me not a mockery for Thy creatures, a laughing-stock for Thyself, a follower of anything but Thy good pleasure, a menial servant for anything but avenging Thee! Let me find the coolness of Thy pardon and the sweetness of Thy mercy, Thy repose,Thy

ease,and the garden of Thy bliss! Let me taste,through some of Thy boundless plenty,

the flavor of being free for what Thou lovest and striving in what brings about proximity with Thee and to Thee,and give me a gift from among Thy gifts! Make my commerce profitable and my return without loss, fill me with fear of Thy station, make me yearn for the meeting with Thee, and allow me to repent with an unswerving repentance along with which Thou lettest no sins remain,small or large,and leavest no wrongs,open or secret! Root out rancor toward the faithful from my breast, bend my heart toward the humble, be toward me as Thou art toward the righteous, adorn me with the adornment of the god-fearing, appoint for me a goodly report among those yet to come and a growing remembrance among the later folk,and take me to the plain of those who came first! Complete the lavishness of Thy favor upon me, clothe me in its repeated generosities, fill my hand with Thy benefits, drive Thy generous gifts to me, make me the neighbor of the best of Thy friends in the Gardens which Thou hast adorned for Thy chosen,and wrap me in Thy noble presents in the stations prepared for Thy beloveds!

Appoint for me a resting place with Thee where I may seek haven in serenity,and a resort to which I may revert and rest my eyes, weigh not against me my dreadful misdeeds, destroy me not on the day the secrets are tried,eliminate from me every doubt and uncertainty, appoint for me a way in the truth from every mercy, make plentiful for me the portions of gifts from Thy granting of awards,and fill out for me the shares of beneficence from Thy bestowal of bounty! Make my heart trust in what is with Thee and my concern free for what is Thine, employ me in that in which Thou employest Thy pure friends, drench my heart with Thy obedience when intellects are distracted,and combine within me independence continence, ease,release,

health,plenty, tranquility,and well-being! Make not fail my good deeds through my

disobedience that stains them or my private times of worship through the instigations of Thy trial! Safeguard my face from asking from anyone in the world,and drive me far from begging for that which is with the ungodly Make me not an aid to the wrongdoers, nor their hand and helper in erasing Thy Book!Defend me whence I know not with a defense through which Thou protectest me! Open toward me the gates of Thy repentance,Thy mercy,Thy clemency,and Thy boundless provision!Surely I am one of those who beseech Thee!And complete Thy favor toward me!Surely Thou art the best of those who show favor! Place the rest of my life in the HAJ and the U’MRA seeking Thy face, O Lord of the worlds! And may ALLAH bless MUHAMMAD and his Household,the good,the pure,and peace be upon him and them always and forever.



[1]اين خطبه كه به خطبه اشباح معروف است از خطبه‏هاى درخشان‏آنحضرت مى‏باشد، مسعدة بن صدقه-از امام صادق(ع)نقل ميكند،امير مؤمنان(ع)اين خطبه را بر منبر كوفه به اين جهت ايراد كرد كه‏شخصى از امام خواست‏خدا را آنچنان برايش توصيف كند كه گويا اورا با چشم مى‏بيند تا بر معرفتش افزوده گردد،امام(ع)از اين سخن‏غضبناك شد و اعلام كرد همه حاضر شوند،مسجد پر از جمعيت‏شد امام‏عليه السلام بر منبر قرار گرفت در حالى كه غضبناك بود و رنگش متغير،پس از ستايش خداوند و درود بر پيامبر اسلام چنين فرمود:

ستايش مخصوص خداوندى است كه بخل و جمود بر دارائيش نمى‏افزايد،و سخاوت‏و بخشش فقيرش نمى‏سازد،اما هر بخشنده‏اى غير از او دارائيش نقصان مى‏يابد،و جز او هركس دست عطاى خويش از بخشش باز دارد مذموم شمرده مى‏شود،او است‏بخشنده انواع‏نعمتها و بهره‏ها،و مخلوقات همه جيره خوار اويند.

روزى همه را تضمين كرده،و قوت آنها را معين ساخته،راه و رسم روشن را به‏علاقه‏مندان و خواستاران آنچه نزد او است نشان داده،چنان نيست كه سخاوتش در آنجا كه ازوى بخواهند بيشتر از آنجا كه از او نخواهند باشد.

او اول است اما اولى كه قبل ندارد،او آخرى است كه بعد براى او متصور نيست(ازلى‏و ابدى است).

مردمكهاى چشم را از مشاهده ذاتش باز داشته،زمان بر او نمى‏گذرد تا حالش دگرگون‏شود، در مكانى نيست كه انتقال براى او تصور بتوان كرد.

اگر آنچه از درون سينه سوزان معادن كوهها،بيرون مى‏ريزد،و يا آنچه از لبان پر ازخنده صدفهاى دريا خارج مى‏شود،از نقره‏هاى خالص و طلاههاى ناب،درها و مرجانهاهمه را ببخشد در جود و سخايش كمترين اثرى نخواهد گذاشت،و وسعت نعمتهايش را پايان‏نخواهد داد،آنقدر از نعمتها ذخيره دارد كه هر چه مردم درخواست كنند تمام نمى‏شود.

چون او سخاوتمندى است كه درخواست‏سائلان،چيزى از او كم نمى‏كند،و اصرارو الحاح اصرار كنندگان وى را به بخل وا نمى‏دارد.

صفات خدا در قرآن‏اى پرسش كننده‏اى كه از صفات خدا سؤال كردى!درست‏بنگر آنچه را كه قرآن‏از صفات او بيان مى‏كند به آن اقتدا كن،و از نور هدايتش بهره گير،شيطان تو را به مشقت‏فرا گرفتن بيش از آنچه در كتاب خدا بر تو واجب است و در سنت پيامبر(ص)و ائمه هدى‏آمده است،نيفكند،چيزى را كه از صفات او نمى‏دانى به خدا واگذار چه اين منتها حق‏خداوند بر تو است.

آگاه باش راسخان در علم آنهايند كه خداوند آنها را با اقرار اجمالى به تمام آنچه‏از آنها پوشيده است و تفسير آن را نمى‏دانند،از فرو رفتن در اسرار نهانى بى نياز ساخته.

و خدا آنان را از اين جهت كه در برابر آنچه از تفسير آن بى خبرند به عجز و ناتوانى خويش‏اعتراف دارند،ستوده است،و ترك بحث و تعمق در آنچه خداوند به عهده آنان نگذاشته‏است رسوخ در علم ناميده(و آنان را از راسخان در علم خوانده)[2]بهمين مقدار اكتفا كن!و عظمت‏خداى سبحان را با مقياس عقل خود اندازه مگير!

كه هلاك خواهى شد.

او قادرى است كه اگر نيروى اوهام و عقول براى درك اندازه قدرتش به كار افتد،و افكار بلند انديشمندان مبراى از خطر وسوسه‏ها،براى فهم عميق غيبهاى ملكوتش به‏جولان در آيد،و قلب‏هاى مملو از عشق مشتاقان،براى پى بردن به كيفيات اوصافش به‏سختى به كوشش پردازند،و عقلها به گونه‏اى وصف ناشدنى در بدست آوردن علم ذاتيش‏از راههاى بسيار باريك گام بردارند،(آرى اگر اينها همه بكار افتند)دست رد به سينه همه‏آنها مى‏گذارد،در حاليكه در تاريكيهاى غيب براى خلاص خود به خداوند سبحان پناه مى‏برند،(و هيچيك قادر به درك كنه ذاتش نخواهد بود.) و چون كه با رنج و تلاش مايوس شده‏اند باز مى‏گردند و اعتراف مى‏كنند كه كنه معرفتش رابدست نتوانند آورد و با فكر و عقل نارساى بشر او را نتوان درك كرد)و اندازه جلال و عزتش‏در قلب انديشمندان خطور نكند.

خداوندى كه موجودات را از عدم به وجود آورد،بدون اينكه از نقشه قبلى ديگرى‏اقتباس كند، و يا در آفرينش از آفريننده‏اى قبل از خود سرمشق گرفته باشد.

و آن قدر از ملكوت قدرت خود و شگفتيهاى آثار رحمتش را كه با زبان گوياگواهى به وجود آفريدگار توانا مى‏دهند،به ما نشان داده كه ما را بى‏اختيار به معرفت وشناسائيش دعوت مى‏كند.

آثار صنع و نشانه‏هاى حكمتش در آفريده‏هاى بديعش هويدا است،آنچه آفريده‏حجت و دليلى بر وجود او هستند،هر چند بظاهر مخلوقى خاموشند ولى دليل گويا بر تدبيرذات پاك او مى‏باشند،و گواهى آنها بر آفريدگار همواره ادامه دارد.

(خداوندا)شهادت مى‏دهم آن كس كه تو را به مخلوقاتت تشبيه مى‏كند و براى تو همانندآنها اعضاى مختلف و مفاصل بهم پيوسته كه به فرمان حكمت،در لابلاى عضلات پنهان‏گشته،قائل مى‏شود هرگز در اعماق ضمير خود تو را نشناخته و يقين به اين حقيقت در درون‏جان او قرار نگرفته كه:

هرگز شبيه و نظيرى براى تو نيست.

و گويا بيزارى پيروان(گمراه را در قيامت)از رهبران خود را نشنيده‏اند كه ميگويند:

«به خدا سوگند ما در گمراهى آشكار بوديم كه شما را با پروردگار جهانيان‏مساوى ميشمرديم‏»دروغ گفتند آنان كه از تو عدول كردند و تو را به بتهاى خود تشبيه نمودند،و با اوهام‏و خيالات خود لباس صفات مخلوقين را به تو پوشاندند.

يا همچون اجسام در عالم پندار خويش تو را تجزيه كردند،و هر يك با سليقه شخصى خودبه مخلوقاتى كه قواى گوناگون دارد مقايسه‏ات كردند.

گواهى مى‏دهم آنان كه تو را با چيزى از مخلوق مساوى بشمردند از تو روى برتافته‏اندو آنكس كه از تو روى برتابد بگفته آيات محكماتت و شهادت دلائل روشنت كافر است تو همان خداى نامحدودى هستى كه در مسير وزش افكار در كيفيت‏خاصى قرارنگيرى تا به تصرف آنها آئى و محدود شوى.

قسمت ديگرى از اين خطبه‏آنچه را آفريد بدرستى اندازه گيرى نمود،و به خوبى تدبير كرد و در مسير خويش‏قرار داد،نه از حد و منزلت آن تجاوز كرد و نه قبل از رسيدن به هدف كوتاهى نمود.

و آنها نيز در برابر فرمان او سرپيچى نكردند،چگونه ممكن است‏سرپيچى كنند درحاليكه همه از اراده او سرچشمه مى‏گيرند.

موجودات را بدون احتياج به تفكر و انديشه و بدون غريزه‏اى كه در درون پنهان داشته‏باشد، ايجاد كرد،او بدون تجربه از پيش آمدهاى گذشته،و بدون شريكى كه در ايجادامور شگفت‏انگيز ياريش كند،موجودات را آفريد.

با فرمانش خلقت آنها را كامل كرد،سر بر فرمان او نهادند و دعوتش را اجابت‏كردند و در برابرش سستى نكردند،آفريده‏اى نبوده كه در اطاعت امرش سستى ودرنگ نمايد.

موجودات را بدون هيچگونه كژى بر پاداشت،و راه و رسمى كه بايد بپيمايند معين‏ساخت،با قدرتش بين اشياء متضاد الفت ايجاد نمود،و وسائل ارتباط آنان را فراهم‏ساخت،موجودات را به اجناس مختلفى از نظر حدود،اندازه،غرائز،و اشكال وو هيئت تقسيم نمود،مخلوقات آفريد، و در آفرينش آنها حكمت‏به خرج داد،و آنهارا آن سان كه مى‏خواست ابداع نمود.

قسمتى ديگر در توصيف آسمان است.

پستى و بلندى و فاصله‏هاى وسيع(آسمانها)را بدون اينكه به چيزى تكيه داشته باشندنظام بخشيد،و فاصله‏ها و شكافهاى آن را بهم پيوند داد آسمانها را با پيوندهاى خاصى به يكديگر مربوط ساخت،و مشكل بالا و پائين رفتن‏فرشتگان را براى بردن اعمال مخلوقات آسان نمود.

و در حالى كه به صورت دود و بخار بود به آن فرمان داد،پس رابطه‏هاى آنها را برقرار ساخت(و با نيروى جاذبه هر كدام يكديگر را جذب كردند)سپس(آسمانها)را از هم‏جدا نمود(و با نيروى گريز از مركز)بين آنها فاصله انداخت،و بر هر راهى از آنهانگهبانى از شهابها گماشت،و با دست قدرتش آنها را از حركات ناموزون در ميان فضانگاه داشت[3].

به آنها دستور داد كه در برابر فرمانش تسليم باشند خورشيد را نشانه روشنى بخش‏روز در تمام ايام و ماه را نورى كمرنگ براى(زدودن شدت تيرگى)شبها،قرار داد.

و آن دو را در مجراى خودشان به جريان انداخت،و مراحلى را كه بايد بپيماينداندازه‏گيرى نمود،تا ميان شب و روز تفاوت حاصل شود،و با رفت و آمد آنها شماره سالهاو حساب آن را بتوان فهميد.

سپس در جو آسمان فلكش را آفريد،و آنچه زينت‏بخش آن بودند از ستارگان‏مخفى و كم نور و اقمار و ستارگان پر فروغ در آن جايگزين ساخت،و آنان را كه استراق‏سمع كردند،با شهابهاى ثاقت تيرباران نمود.

ستارگان ثوابت و سيارات،هبوط كننده و صعود كننده،سعد و نحس همه را به امر واراده خود مسخر ساخت.[4]قسمت ديگرى از اين خطبه كه در توصيف فرشتگان است.

سپس خداوند سبحان براى سكونت‏بخشيدن در آسمانها و آباد ساختن بالاترين‏قسمت از ملكوت خويش،مخلوقاتى بديع،يعنى فرشتگان را آفريد كه تمام صحنه‏هاى‏آسمان را پر كنند، و فاصله جو آن را از آنها مالامال ساخت،هم اكنون صداى تسبيح‏آنها فاصله‏ها را پر كرده،و در بارگاه قدس و در درون پرده‏هاى حجاب و صحنه‏هاى مجد وعظمت پروردگار طنين انداز است و در ماوراى آنها زلزله‏هائى است كه گوشها را كر ميكند،و شعاعهاى خيره كننده‏نور، چشمها را از ديدن باز مى‏دارد،و از روى ناچارى به توقف وا مى‏دارد.

آنها را به صورتهاى مختلف و اندازه‏هاى گوناگون آفريد،و بال و پرهائى براى آنهاقرار داد.

آنها كه همواره تسبيح جلال و عزت او مى‏گويند،هيچگاه از اسرار شگفت‏انگيزى‏كه در مخلوقات است،به خود نسبت نمى‏دهند(گر چه خود واسطه در خلق باشند)و هرگزادعا نمى‏كنند،كه مى‏توانند چيزى را كه آفرينش آن مخصوص ذات او است‏بيافرينندبلكه بندگان گراميند كه‏«در سخن بر او پيشى نميگيرند و به فرمانش عمل ميكنند»آنان را امين وحى خود ساخته،و براى رساندن ودائع،امر و نهيش به پيامبران،آنها را روانه داشته و از ترديد در شبهات،مصونيت‏بخشيده است و هيچكدام از آنها از راه‏رضاى حق منحرف نمى‏شوند.

آنها را از يارى خويش بهره‏مند ساخته،و قلبشان را با تواضع و خشوع و سكينه ووقار آگاه نموده است،طرق آسانى براى عبادت خويش بروى آنها گشوده است،چراغهاى‏روشنى براى نشانه‏هاى توحيدش نصب نموده،و سنگينيهاى گناهان(مردم)هرگز آنان‏را در كار خود دلسرد نكرد،رفت و آمد شب و روز آنان را بسوى مرگ كوچ نداده،تيرهاى‏شك و ترديد در ايمان پر عزم آنان خللى ايجاد نكرده،و گمانها بر پايگاه يقين آنها راه‏نيافته‏اند و آتش كينه بين آنها افروخته نشده است.

حيرت و سرگردانى(در فهم و كنه او)آنان را آنمقدار ايمان كه در دل دارند و آنچه‏از هيبت و جلالش در درون نهفته‏اند جدا نساخته است.

وسوسه‏ها در آنها راه نيافته تا شك و ترديد بر آنها مسلط شود گروهى از آنان در آفرينش ابرهاى پر آب و در آفرينش كوههاى عظيم و مرتفع،و خلقت ظلمت و تاريكى دست در كارند.

و گروهى ديگر قدمهايشان تا قعر زمين پائين رفته و همچون پرچمهاى سفيدى دل هوارا شكافته و در زير آن بادهائى است كه به نرمى حركت مى‏كند،و در حدود معينى نگاهش‏ميدارد.

اشتغال به عبادت او آنان را از كار ديگر باز داشته،و حقيقت ايمان،ميان آنهاو معرفت‏حق ارتباط ايجاد كرده،يقين به حق آنها را مشتاق وى گردانيده و علاقه‏اى به غير ازآنچه نزد پروردگار است ندارند.

شيرينى معرفتش را چشيده،و از جام محبتش سيرآب شده‏اند.

ترس و خوف او در اعماق جانشان راه يافته،از كثرت اطاعت و عبادت قامتشان خم‏شده،و رغبت فراوان به او تضرع آنها را از بين نبرده است.

مقام برجسته آنان طوق خشوع را از گردنشان بيرون نياورده،عجب آنها را فرانگرفته كه اعمال گذشته خود را بشمارند و خضوع و خشوع در برابر ذات با عظمتش سهمى‏براى بزرگ شمردن خود باقى نگذارده است.

گذشت زمان آنان را از انجام وظيفه خسته نكرده،و از رغبتشان نكاسته است تا از اميدبدرگاه پروردگار خود عدول كنند.

مناجاتهاى طولانى،زبان آنان را كند نكرده،و اشتغال به غير خداوند آنها را تحت‏تسلط خود نياورده.تا نداى بلند آنان را به تضرع و خشوع كوتاه سازد.

در مقام عبادت دوش بدوش هم ايستاده‏اند،راحت طلبى آنها را به تقصير در دستوراتش‏وا نداشته،كودنى و غفلتها بر تلاش و كوشش و عزم راسخ آنان تسلط نمييابد.

فريب شهوت،همتهاى آنان را تير باران نمى‏كند آنها«آفريننده و صاحب عرش‏»را ذخيره روز بى‏نوائى خود قرار داده،و به هنگام‏رو نمودن خلق به مخلوق رغبت‏خود را متوجه خالق ساخته‏اند،هيچگاه عبادتش را پايان‏نمى‏دهند،و علاقه خود را از لزوم طاعتش باز نمى‏گردانند مگر خواسته‏هائى از قلوب كه‏از رجاء و خوف او،انقطاع نپذيرفته است.

عوامل ترس آنها از مسئوليت،قطع نگرديده تا در جديت‏خود سستى به خرج دهند،طمعها به آنان شبيخون نزده تا كوشش(در امور دنيا را)بر جديت در كار آخرت‏مقدم دارند.

اعمال گذشته خود را بزرگ نشمرده‏اند،اگر بزرگ بشمرند،اميد بيش از حد،خوف آنها را از بين ميبرد و در مورد پروردگار خويش به خاطر وسوسه‏هاى شيطانى‏اختلاف نكرده‏اند.

بدى برخوردها آنان را از هم جدا نساخته،كينه‏هاى حسادت آنها را از هم دورننموده،عوامل شك و ترديد آنان را پراكنده نگردانيده و افكار گوناگون آنان را تقسيم‏ننموده است.

آنان پاى بند ايمانند و طوق ايمان در گردنشان،هيچگاه اين طوق را به سبب شك و ترديدو سستى از گردن برنميدارند.

در تمام آسمانها به اندازه جاى پوستينى نتوان يافت،جز اينكه فرشته‏اى به سجده‏افتاده يا موجودى تلاشگر و سريع مشغول كار است،طاعت فراوان آنها،بر يقين و معرفتشان‏نسبت‏به پروردگارشان مى‏افزايد و عزت پروردگار،به قلبشان عظمت‏بيشترى‏مى‏بخشد.

قسمتى ديگر از اين خطبه در توصيف زمين و گسترش آن(خشگيهاى)زمين را بر روى امواج پر هيجان و درياهاى مملو از آب قرار داد،قسمتهاى بالاى امواج را متلاطم ساخت و آنها كه بهم مى‏خوردند سخت‏به حركت درآورد[5]تا رويه‏اى از كف،همانند كفهاى دهان شتر هنگام مستى،بر روى‏آنها پديد آمد،سپس قسمتهاى سركش آب بر اثر سنگينى خضوع نموده هيجان آنها بر اثرتماس با سينه زمين فرو نشست زيرا زمين با پشت‏بر آن مى‏غلطيد و آنهمه سر و صدا كه در اثر امواج پيدا شده بودساكن و آرام شد و همچون اسب افسار شده،اسير و رام گرديد.

و خشگيهاى زمين در دل امواج گسترده شد،و آب را از كبر و غرور و خودبينى و نشاط بى‏حد باز داشت،و از شدت حركتش كاست.

و بعد از آنهمه حركت،ساكن شد،و پس آنهمه جست و خيز متكبرانه به جاى‏خويش ايستاد.

هنگامى كه هيجان آب در اطراف زمين فرو نشست،و كوههاى سخت و مرتفع رابر دوش خود حمل نمود،چشمه‏هاى آب از بينى كوهها جارى ساخت(و آب)آنها را درپهندشت و گودالها و رودخانه‏ها جارى نمود.

حركات زمين را با صخره‏هاى عظيم و قله كوههاى بلند و محكم تعديل كرد و زمين‏به خاطر نفوذ كوهها در سطح آن،و فرو رفتن ريشه‏هاى آن در بينى آن،و سوار شدن برگردن دشتها و صحراها،از لرزش و اضطراب باز ايستاد.[6]بين زمين و جو فاصله افكند،و نسيم هوا را براى ساكنان آن آماده ساخت،تمام‏نيازمنديها و وسائل زندگى را براى اهل زمين استخراج كرد.

سپس هيچكدام از بلنديهاى زمين را كه آب چشمه‏ها به آن نمى‏رسد و جدولهاى نهرهابه آن راه ندارد بحال خود وانگذاشت،بلكه ابرهائى را آفريد تا قسمتهاى مرده آن را احياسازند،و گياهان آن را برويانند.

قطعه‏هاى پراكنده ابرها را به هم پيوست،تا سخت‏به حركت آمدند و برق در اطرافش درخشيدن گرفت،ولى از درخشندگى ابرهاى سفيد كوه پيكر ومتراكمش كاسته نشد،آنها را پى در پى فرستاد آنچنان كه زمين را احاطه كردند و بادهاشير آن را از پستانش دوشيدند،و به شدت به زمين فرو ريختند،ابرها سينه بر زمين سائيدندو آنچه بر دوش،داشتند پاشيدند، و بوسيله آن در بخشهاى بى‏گناه زمين گياهانى رويانيدو در دامن كوهها سبزه‏ها به وجود آورد.

پس زمين به وسيله باغهاى زيباى خود همگان را به سرور و شادى دعوت مى‏كند و بالباس نازك گلبرگها كه بر خود پوشيده در شگفتى فرو مى‏برد،و از زينت و زيورى كه ازگلوبند گلهاى گوناگون يافته بيننده را به وجد مى‏آورد،و فرآورده‏هاى نباتى را توشه وغذاى انسانها،و روزى حيوانات قرار داد.

در گوشه و كنار آن دره‏هاى عميق آفريد،و راهها و نشانه‏ها براى آنان كه بخواهند درجاده‏هاى وسيعش قدم بردارند تعيين كرد.

انتخاب آدم:

هنگامى كه زمين را آماده سكونت نمود،و فرمان خويش را جارى ساخت،آدم(ع)را از ميان مخلوقاتش برگزيد،و او را نخستين و برترين مخلوق خويش قرار داد وى را دربهشت‏خود جاى داد،و خوراكهاى گوارا در اختيارش نهاد،و از آنچه ممنوعش كرده‏بود وى را بيم داد،آگاهش ساخت كه اقدام بر آن،نافرمانى خواهد بود،و منزلت و مقام‏او را بخطر مى‏افكند.

ولى آدم مرتكب آنچه نهى شده بود گرديد،[7]و علم خداوند در مورد او به‏وقوع پيوست.

پس از توبه او را از بهشت‏به زمين فرستاد،تا با نسل خود زمين را آباد سازد،وبدين وسيله حجت را بر بندگان تمام كرد،پس از مرگ آدم زمين را از حجت‏خالى‏نگذاشت و ميان فرزندان آدم و شناسائى خود،پيوندى برقرار كرد،قرن به قرن حجتهاو دليلها را بر زبان پيامبران برگزيده و حاملان رسالت‏خويش براى آنها اقامه نمود تا اينكه‏بوسيله پيامبر ما محمد(ص) حجتش تمام گرديد و بيان احكام و انذار و بشارت و بيم او به سر منزل آخر رسيد.

روزيها را مقدر و اندازه‏گيرى كرد:گاهى كم و گاهى زياد،و به تنگى و وسعت،بطورعادلانه، تقسيم فرمود،تا هر كه را بخواهد به وسعت روزى و يا تنگى آن بيازمايد و با آن‏«شكر»و«صبر»غنى و فقير را مورد آزمايش قرار دهد.

سپس روزى وسيع را با فقر و بيچارگى در آميخت،و تندرستى را با حوادث دردناك‏توام نمود، دوران شادى و سرور را با غصه و اندوه مقرون ساخت،سرآمد زندگى را آفريدو آن را گاهى طولانى و گاهى كوتاه قرار داد،آنرا مقدم و يا مؤخر داشت،و براى مرگ‏اسبابى فراهم ساخت،و با مرگ رشته‏هاى زندگى را در هم پيچيد،و پيوندهاى مختلف رااز هم گسست(و همه اينها اسباب و عواملى است‏براى آزمون انسانها).

از درونها آگاه است‏خداوند از اسرار پنهانى مردم آگاه است،و هم از نجواى آنان كه آهسته سخن ميگويندو از آنچه در افكار بواسطه گمان خطور مى‏كند،و از تصميمهائى كه با يقين مى‏پيوندد،و ازشعاعهاى خيانت آميز چشم كه از لابلاى پلكها خارج مى‏گردد!.

و از آنچه در مخفى‏گاههاى دلها قرار دارد،و از همانها كه در پشت پرده‏هاى ظلمانى‏غيب پنهان است،و از آنچه پرده‏هاى گوش مخفيانه مى‏شنود.

و از اندرون لانه‏هاى تابستانى مورچگان و خانه‏هاى زمستانى حشرات.

از آهنگ اندوهبار زنان غمديده و صداى آهسته قدمها.

و از جايگاه پرورش ميوه در درون پرده‏هاى شكوفه‏ها،و از مخفى گاه غارهاى‏حيوانات وحشى در دل كوهها و اعماق دره‏ها از نهانگاه پشه‏ها بين ساقه‏ها و پوست درختان،و از محل پيوستگى برگها به شاخها،و از آنجا كه نطفه‏ها از اصلاب حركت كرده و در درون‏رحمها بهم مى‏آميزند.

از آنچه پرده ابر را به وجود مى‏آورد و بهم مى‏پيوندد،و از قطرات درهائى كه ابرهاى‏متراكم مى‏بارند و از آنچه گردبادها باد امن خويش از روى زمين برمى‏دارند،و بارانها باسيلاب خود آن را فرو مى‏نشانند و محو مى‏كنند. از ريشه‏هاى گياهان زمين كه در ميان تلهاى شن و ماسه پنهان شده است.

از لانه‏هاى پرندگانى كه در قله بلند كوهها قرار دارند،و از نغمه‏هاى مرغان در آشيانه-هاى تاريك،و از لؤلؤهائى كه در دل صدفها پنهان است و امواج درياها آنها را در دامن‏خويش پرورش داده‏اند.

از آنچه تاريكى شب آن را فرا گرفته،و يا خورشيد بآن نور افشانده است،و آنچه‏ظلمتها و امواج نور پى در پى آن را در بر مى‏گيرند.

از اثر هر گامى،و احساس هر حركتى،و آهنگ هر سخنى،و جنبش هر لبى،و مكان‏هر انسانى، و وزن هر ذره‏اى و ناله هر صاحب اندوه و غمى.

و آنچه از ميوه بر شاخه درختان قرار دارد،و برگهائى كه روى زمين ريخته.

و از قرارگاه نطفه و يا جمع شدن خون و مضغه و يا پرورش دهنده انسان و نطفه.

(آرى از همه آنچه بر شمردم او به خوبى آگاه است)و در اين آگاهى هيچگونه مشقتى‏برايش وجود ندارد و در حفظ و نگاهدارى آنچه از مخلوقات به وجود آورده ناراحتى‏براى او نيامده و در بكار انداختن امور و تدبير مخلوقات سستى و ملالتى بر او عارض نشده،بلكه علمش در آنها نفوذ يافته،و شمارش آنان را احصاء كرده و عدالتش همه آنها را شامل‏شده و با كوتاهى آنها در آنچه شايسته مقام او است‏باز از فضل خود محرومشان نساخته است.

دعاءبار خدايا!تو داراى اوصاف جميل و صفات كمال بى منتهائى.

اگر بتو اميد داريم چون تو بهترين مايه اميدى.

پروردگارا بمن فصاحت و منطق و زبان گويا داده‏اى،غير از تو را با آن مدح نمى‏گويم‏و بجز تو بر ديگرى ثنا نمى‏خوانم،و آن را در راه آنان كه آرزو را قطع مى‏كنند و مورد اعتمادنيستند بكار نمى‏بندم،در پرتو ايمان،زبانم را از مديحه سرائى انسانها،و ثناگوئى بر مخلوق‏بازداشته‏اى.

خداوندا!هر ثنا خوانى از سوى كسيكه ثنايش مى‏گويد پاداشى دارد،من بتو اميدوارم‏كه راهنمايم به سوى ذخاير رحمت و گنجهاى آمرزشت گردى.

كردگارا!اين است وضع آنكس كه تو را در توحيد خاص خودت يكتا بشمارد،و غير از تو را مستحق اين ستايش و مدحها نداند.

من بتو نيازى دارم كه جز فضل تو نمى‏تواند آنرا جبران كند.و اين فقر و پريشانى را جزاحسان وجود تو نتواند رفع نمايد،پس در اين مقام،رضاى خويشتن را به ما عطا كن،و دست نياز ما را از دامن غير خود كوتاه گردان!«انك على كل شى‏ء قدير»:تو بر هرچيز توانائى.


[1]شيخ صدوق در كتاب‏«توحيد»اين خطبه را از«مسعدة بن صدقه‏»از امام صادق(ع)نقل كرده است.

ولى آنچه در اينجا آمده طولانى‏تر است،و در بعضى الفاظ و جملات با هم‏تفاوتهائى دارند.

ابن ابى الحديد در فصلى كه مربوط به فرشتگان است مى‏گويد:

«اين سخن ربانى و الفاظ قدسى،فصاحت عرب را باطل ساخته،و نسبت‏سخن فصيح با اين گفته همچون خاك در برابر طلاى خالص است.

اگر فرض شود كه عرب قادر بر بكار بستن الفاظ فصيحى همچون الفاظ‏اين خطبه بوده اما به مواد و محتويات چنين خطبه‏اى دسترسى نداشت،عرب‏جاهلى بلكه اصحاب پيامبر(ص)غير از امام(ع)قادر به درك اين معانى نبودندتا تعبيراتى از الفاظ براى آن پيدا كنند.

زيرا فصاحت عرب جاهلى در صفات شتر،اسب،حيوانات وحشى،ويا كوهها و تپه‏ها خلاصه مى‏شد،و فصاحت اصحاب پيامبر از يكى دو سطر تجاوزنمى‏كرد،آن هم درباره مرگ و مذمت دنيا و يا جنگ و مبارزه!

اما سخن درباره فرشتگان و صفات و اشكال آنها و عبادات و تسبيح ومعرفت و شناسائى آنها در مورد خداوند،و علاقه و عشق به پروردگار و امثال آن كه‏در اين خطبه آمده است در نزد صحابه ناشناخته بوده است.

درست است‏بعضى از اين صفات در قرآن كريم آمده ولى كسى كه قسمتى‏از اين معانى را مى‏دانسته هرگز قدرت ريختن آنها در قالب اين عبارات رانداشته است.

از اينجا روشن مى‏شود كه نكات دقيق در اين عبارات فصيح براى غيرامام(ع)ميسر نبوده است-(مستدرك و مدارك نهج البلاغه صفحه 248-249) .

[2]منظور اين است كه خداوند از آنجا كه وجودى است‏بى انتها ونامحدود است و انسان هر قدر علم و دانشش فراوان باشد باز موجودى است‏محدود،نمى‏تواند از كنه ذاتش آگاه گردد.

بنابر اين نبايد خود را بى‏جهت‏به پرتگاههائى بيفكند كه پايان آن ناپيدا است‏بلكه در صفات و افعال او و در جهان هستى كه مظهر صفات و افعال او است‏بينديشد.

[3]ظاهر عبارت اين است كه اين جمله درباره وضع كرات آسمانى‏و نظم و حركات آنها است كه بفرمان پروردگار به وسيله نيروى جاذبه و دافعه‏از حركات ناموزون بركنارند.

و نيز اين احتمال هست كه اشاره به وضع‏«شهب‏»باشد كه به فرمان‏پروردگار از نفوذ و ايجاد اضطراب در جو و هواى زمين ممنوع شده است،وپيش از آنكه به طبقات پائين هواى اطراف زمين برسند،مى‏سوزند و از بين‏مى‏روند.

[4]گاهى توهم مى‏شود كه اين جمله(نحوسها و سعودها):سعد ونحس،با آنچه در سخن‏79 فرموده است.

كه علم نجوم را فرا نگيريد منافات دارد،چه اينكه در آنجا از آموختن علم‏نجوم نهى شده و در اين جا مسئله سعد و نحس را اثبات مى‏كند،ولى حقيقت اين‏است كه در آنجا امام(ع)اين قسمت را نفى مى‏كند كه اگر منجم چيزى را بطورمسلم از ستارگان استفاده كند و تغيير ناپذير بداند،جبر است،و با قرآن‏نمى‏سازد.

سپس از آموختن نجوم كه بالاخره به كهانت و سحر و جبر منتهى مى‏شودنهى فرموده.

اما در اينجا به اصل اين قسمت كه بعضى از ستارگان نشانه سعادتند از قبيل‏فراوانى باران و بعضى نشانه نحوست از قبيل بيماريهاى عمومى هستند اشاره‏كرده ولى در هر حال چيزى در اين جهان جز بفرمان خدا صورت نمى‏گيرد،ومشيت او ما فوق همه اين‏ها است.

دانشمندان امروز نيز مى‏گويند:

تغيير و تحولهائى كه در پاره‏اى از كرات آسمانى صورت مى‏گيرد از طريق امواج مغناطيسى خاصى كه به زمين مى‏فرستد در اوضاع زمين و مردمش مؤثراست.

از جمله آتش فشانهائى كه در خورشيد رخ ميدهد و تشعشعاتى كه از آن صادرمى‏شود مؤثر در بروز حوادثى در اوضاع جوى زمين و حتى در وضع عصبى مردم‏روى زمين و بروز جنگها مى‏دانند.

[5]جمله بالا ممكن است اشاره بدوران بارانهاى سيلابى باشد كه‏بر اثر فرود آمدن بارانهاى سيل آسا و پى در پى در مدت هزاران سال،سرتاسركره زمين از آب پوشيده شد،امواج كوه پيكر و خشمگين مرتبا سطح كره زمين رادر هم كوبيدند،اما برخورد تدريجى اين امواج با سطح ناهموار زمين كم‏كم ازشدت و فشار آنها كاست و امواج آرام گرفتند،سپس بر اثر نيروى جاذبه،آبهابه قسمتهاى گود زمين كشيده شدند و خشكيها آهسته آهسته سر از آب بيرون آورندو زمين تدريجا شكل امروز را به خود گرفت،بنابر اين جمله‏هاى بالا با آنچه درعلم امروز درباره پيدايش زمين آمده است تطبيق مى‏كند.

[6]مى‏دانيم كه ارتفاع كوهها نسبت‏به عظمت كره زمين چندان زيادنيست ولى از آنجا كه ريشه كوهها بهم پيوسته و همانند زرهى گرداگرد كره زمين‏را گرفته است از جزر و مد پوسته جامد زمين در برابر جاذبه ماه جلوگيرى‏مى‏كند.

به عبارت روشن‏تر اگر زره كوهها بروى زمين كشيده نبود و سطح زمين‏نرم و هموار بود دائما بر اثر جاذبه ماه(همانند آب اقيانوسها)در حال‏اضطراب و لرزش و جزر و مد بود.توضيح بيشتر در اين زمينه را در كتاب‏«قرآن‏و آخرين پيامبر»در بحث اعجاز علمى قرآن مطالعه فرمائيد.

[7]در اينجا سؤالى پيش مى‏آيد:

و آن اينكه آيا آدم معصيت پروردگار كرده است؟

در پاسخ بايد گفت:

همانطور كه در جاى خود گفته‏ايم پيامبران معصومند و گناه و سهو واشتباه مرتكب نمى‏شوند،لذا در مورد آدم ميگوئيم:

در حقيقت كار او گناه نبود چه اينكه آدم پس از خلقت در بهشت‏يك‏دوران آموزشى را طى نموده،زيرا او را خداوند براى خلافت زمين آفريده‏بود و مى‏بايست در روى زمين قرار گيرد،و سرپرستى آن را عهده‏دار شود كه‏امام با جمله‏«موافاة لسابق علمه‏»به آن اشاره كرده است.

و از طرفى چون زندگى در روى زمين داراى نوسانات و برخوردهائى‏بوده قهرا مسئله تكليف را همراه مى‏آورد.

آدم نيز بايد از چگونگى تكليف و عمل به آن و همچنين نتيجه تخلف ازفرمان خدا،خود و فرزندانش آگاه گردند و بدانند دشمن آنان در زمين كيست‏پس دوران زندگى آنها در هشت‏يك دوران آزمايشى و آمادگى براى‏زندگى در زمين بوده است.

روى اين دستورات دوران آزمايشى،گناه به معناى معروف بين مانيست‏بلكه يك نوع ترك اولى محسوب مى‏شده است،براى اطلاع بيشتر به(تفسير نمونه جلد 1 ص‏129) مراجعه فرمائيد.





Posted by: Mehrnaz | November 2, 2009

Islamic art and architecture

Islamic art and architecture

Islamic art and architecture

works of art and architecture created in countries where Islam has been dominant and embodying Muslim precepts in its themes.   



In the century after the death (A.D. 632) of the prophet Muhammad, his Arab followers spread his teachings through Egypt and N Africa, as far west as Spain, and as far east as Sassanid Persia. Because of their rapid expansion and the paucity of the earlier artistic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula, the Muslims derived their unique style from synthesizing the arts of the Byzantines, the Copts, the Romans, and the Sassanids. The great strength of Islamic art as a whole lies in its ability to synthesize native design elements with imported ones.   

Abstract decoration of the surface is an important factor in every work of Islamic art and architecture, whether large or small. Curving and often interlaced lines, of which the arabesque is a typical example, and the use of brilliant colors characterize almost all of the finest productions, which are of greatly varied styles. Islamic art eschews the realistic representation of human beings and animals, and its floral designs are extremely distant from their original models. While the prohibition against depicting living forms is not contained in the Qur’an, it is widely thought that the non-representational character of Islamic ornament has its source in the traditional theological prohibition against imitating God’s works.

Islamic art and architecture




The earliest architectural monument of Islam that retains most of its original form is the Dome of the Rock (Qubbat al-Sakhrah) in Jerusalem, constructed in 691–92 on the site of the Jewish Second Temple. Muslims believe it to be the spot from which Muhammad ascended to heaven. It has mosaics depicting scrolling vines and flowers, jewels, and crowns in greens, blues, and gold. Similar in some aspects is the later Great Mosque of Damascus (built c.705–14) which was built by Al Walid over what was originally a Roman temple. The interior walls have stone mosaics that depict crowns, fantastic plants, realistic trees, and even empty towns. This is thought to represent Paradise for the faithful Muslim. Both the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and the great Mosque of Damascus used the Syrian cut-stone technique of building and popularized the use of the dome (see mosque).   

The 8th-century desert palace Khirbat al-Mafjar (in present-day Jordan) reveals a wealth of carved and molded stucco decoration, sculptured stone reliefs, and figural fresco paintings. In 750 the Abbasid dynasty moved the capital east to Baghdad, and from 836 to 892 the Abbasid rulers resided at Samarra. The Great Mosque of Samarra is an important example of the Iraqi hypostyle, noted for its massive size and spectacular minaret. In Iran few Islamic buildings erected before the 10th cent. are still standing. Sassanid building techniques, such as the squinch, were combined with the mosque form (see Persian art and architecture). Sassanid influence is also strong in many Umayyad dynasty residential palaces, built mostly in Syria. The most famous is the 8th-century palace of Mshatta; much of its delicately carved stone facade is now in Berlin.   

In the middle of the 8th cent. the last of the Umayyads escaped to Spain and refounded his dynasty there. The great Mosque of Córdoba was begun in 785 and is famous for its rows of double-tiered arches. The mosque was extended three times. The culture of Islamic Spain reached its apogee in Moorish art and architecture. Faïence and lacy pierced-stone screens are the hallmarks of its decoration. The same style prevails in N Africa and is seen at its best in Fès, Morocco, where much elaborately carved wood is used. The Mudé jarstyle of Spain, employed throughout the 18th cent. and influential until much later, is based on this architecture.   

Late in the 9th cent. the governor of Egypt, Ibn Tulun, initiated the high period of Egypto-Islamic art with the building of his famous mosque in Cairo. In the 10th cent. the Fatimids introduced into Egypt the decorative stalactite ceiling from Iran and placed emphasis on decorative flat moldings. The most important Fatimid buildings are the Cairo mosques of al-Azhar and al-Aqmar. The cruciform Mosque of Hasanin Cairo, built by a Mamluk sultan in 1536, still reflects Persian influence.

In India a distinct style, preserved mainly in architecture, developed after the Delhi Sultanate was established (1192). This art made extensive use of stone and reflected Indian adaptation to Islam rule, until Mughal art replaced it in the 17th cent. (see Mughal art and architecture). The square Char Minar of Hyderabad (1591) with large arches, arcades, and minarets is typical.   

In Turkey the mosque form was also derived from Persia, as was most Turkish art. The great Byzantine church of Hagia Sophia, adapted for use as a mosque, greatly influenced Turkish architects. The most famous among these is Sinan, chief architect in the Ottoman court from 1539 until his death in 1588. He constructed or designed most of Sulayman I’s buildings, the most noted of which is his mosque (c.1557) in Istanbul, where he is buried. It has four minarets and stained-glass windows flanking the mihrab. The mosque (1614) of Sultan Ahmed I is similarly distinguished by its dome lit by numerous windows, and wall surfaces covered with green and blue tiles. Fine ornate buildings were erected in Turkey until the middle of the 17th cent. 

Islamic art and architecture



The Decorative Arts

Among the ceramic types are unglazed wares, molded pieces with the lead glaze of Hellenistic tradition, and most famous, the lusterware fragments. In 9th-century Islam the technique of tin-glazed ware was perfected. Lusterware was imported into Egypt and later made there. The Great Mosque of Al Qayrawan (c.862) is decorated with square luster tiles set in a lozenge pattern around the pierced marble prayer niche. The 9th cent. also saw the development of metalwork in a distinctive and powerful style under the Umayyads in Egypt. Skilled craftsmanship can be seen in rock-crystal carving, a continuation of Sassanid art, using floral motifs that became increasingly abstract.   

From the 10th to the mid-13th cent. great strides were made in the arts; Egypt became a center of these arts and of calligraphy, which was of prime importance all over the Islamic world. Arabic script represents the expression of the will and strength of Allah, and as such is regarded as sacred by the faithful. One of Islam’s most renowned calligraphers was Ibn Muqlah (d. 940) of Baghdad who invented the six most prominent cursive scripts. Certain scripts were favored for specific uses, such as Kufic for copying the Qur’an. The Kufic script, often executed in gold on parchment, was further animated by floral interlaces. Calligraphy was not used exclusively for two-dimensional works but also appears in architectural ornament, ceramics, textiles and metalwork. During this period calligraphy, bookbinding, papermaking, and illumination were developed and were held in highest esteem throughout Islam. The sloping cursive script most commonly used today, Nastaliq, was perfected in the 15th cent.   

Before the 13th cent. rugs, silks, linens, and brocades were produced throughout the Islamic world, but only fragments remain; the same is true of delicate and highly refined carvings in wood and ivory. Early in the 13th cent. a school of secular manuscript painting arose in the Baghdad area. The pictures may be divided into two types: those that illustrate scientific works, descending directly from late Hellenistic models, and those that illustrate anecdotal tales and whose miniatures display lively detail.    In the middle of the 13th cent. the Mongol invasions devastated Iran and deeply scarred all Islam as far west as the Mediterranean Sea. However, after a period of acclimatization, the Chinese taste and artifacts imported by the Mongols revitalized the art of Iran, where book illustration reached great heights. With the arrival of the Seljuks in Iran came a new ceramic technique, fritware, similar to certain Chinese porcelains. The unique qualities of this ware enabled artists to create richly colored glazes such as deep blues from cobalt and turquoise from copper. Syria and Iraq continued to manufacture fine black-and-turquoise pottery. Textiles and rugs of great beauty were again manufactured throughout Islam, and in the 15th cent. Mamluk carpets were renowned for their designs of great complexity and their asymmetrical knots. Turkish ceramics reached their peak in the “Iznik” ware of the 16th and 17th cent. Distinctive green tiles are frequently used in the decoration of Turkish architecture.

Posted by: Mehrnaz | November 2, 2009

Brief History of Islamic Art

Brief History of Islamic Art


Islamic art is often defined in art books as being an art whose boundaries are not geographical but theological. That is, this style of art called Islamic, was produced in many different geographic regions whose diverse cultures were unified through the religion of Islam.


A New Culture


Islam began as a religious movement in early 7th century Arabia and quickly spread throughout the Middle East. Before the next century Muslems had conquered and converted Byzantium and Persia, as well as parts of Asia, Africa and Europe. For the next six centuries, until the Mongol nomads sacked the Muslem capital of Baghdad in 1258, the nation of Islam was the world’s largest empire and the site of a great cultural flowering.


Synthesis of many cultures

This Islamic culture linked for the first time in history, such varied and distant peoples as Spaniards, Africans, Persians, Turks, Egyptians and Indians. The uniting of so many diverse cultures under one flag and one religion had the advantage of quickly disseminating the latest and best discoveries to all parts of the realm. Paper making from China, “Arabic” numerals from India, classical Greek science and philosophy translations, were all shared. In medicine the Muslims enhanced Greek theory by practical observation and clinical experience. Significant contributions were also made in chemistry, physics and mathematics. These diverse influences also encouraged new developments in the various fields of art.




To the early architects of the mosque we may attribute the development of the pointed arch, the brick dome, and brick vaulted arcades. Unique to Islamic architecture are the minaret , a tower from which the faithful are called to worship, and the gumbat, turbe or tomb tower .

Posted by: Mehrnaz | November 2, 2009

Islam and the Family


Islam and the Family

By:Sayyid Mujtaba Musavi Lari

While the warp of society is the individual person and the woof is social order, the unit of the design is the family. Families in which mutual understanding, sincerity and tenderness reign, form details of a harmonious pattern. But a family in confusion and disarray distorts and mars the pattern.

The instinct for survival is innate in human beings. Producing children is the expression of one urge of this instinct, for a child seems like an extension of one’s own personality, and a guarantee of the continuance of the same life-force. The primary origin of the urge to found families is sought by many thinkers in this instinct for survival.

The need to feed and support a family incites a man to industrial productivity.

Other thinkers hold that the primary urge towards family-founding was merely the sex instinct; others favour the gregarious instinct; others regard wedlock as a mere commercial transaction between families entered into for the profit of both.

In fact, communal living in society requires families as its units of construction. To degrade the pure love between husband and wife merely to sex, profit or protection, is to deny human nature at its highest.

Some say that, since in the inchoate days of human living the woman as a weaker being could not exist except under a man’s protection, family life is merely a feminine institution imposed on man. This is manifest nonsense: for it ignores a man’s need of woman, which may be different from woman’s need of man, but is just as deeply and inextricably a part of his nature. True, man has to be the breadwinner in most cases. But he needs his mate as a partner in happiness, in joy and in sound living. In marriage is the end of loneliness. Each sex needs the other. This is why “male and female made He them.”

God implanted the sex instinct. God created sex differences. He created the survival instinct, the security instinct and the society instinct of gregariousness. All these were part of His providence in preparing mankind to be His joyful family Sociologists give each instinct its due weight in the scheme. They say that the exact role of each instinct varies with the changes in social structure. In primitive society the need to find food and housing is of primary importance. In the ancient agricultural community the need for children became paramount since many hands make light work. Today the sex urge has come very much to the fore, since humanity has devised means to achieve adequate food, satisfactory housing and machines to do the work. But over and above the instincts, the urge to love and the need to be loved are amongst the highest attributes of human nature.

Islam answers the call of nature affirmatively, with its insistence on the family as the best safeguard of public virtue, and its asseveration that it is the only right and legitimate way. It is written in the Sura XVI: Nahl- “The Bee” verse 72: “God has made mates for you of your own nature and made for you of them children and grandchildren and posterity, and provided for you sustenance of the best. Are they then going to believe in vain things and not be grateful for God’s favours?”

Islam sets out to protect young people from being led astray by the strength of the God-implanted sexual urge in the years before their character and conscience have matured and their will is governed by discretion. That is why it lays on parents the responsibility of I admonishing youth, and of imparting rules of. life and guidelines of prudence which will lead to godliness and the natural use of the power of procreation. It also holds parents responsible for arranging early I marriages for those who are mature enough to wed. Young people not yet I economically capable of supporting a family may find the thrust of the sex urge so strong that, without the guiding hand of their parents on the 1 reins, the horses of nature may run away with them and carry them into danger or into the trap of illicit sex. Parents must steer the life-force into I its God-given legitimate channels where peace of mind and calm of conscience accompany the happiness of a shared life.

The Prophet is reported to have preached thus from the pulpit of the mosque: “O Muslim community! Your daughters are like ripe fruit on a tree. Fruit must be picked at its optimum moment; otherwise the sun or other agencies will rot or spoil it. You must likewise give your daughters in marriage at the moment when they are ripe, and neither later nor sooner. If you leave them hanging about too long, their inevitable , corruption will be your fault. They are human, and their human needs must be met.”

Ali bin Asbat wrote a reply to a letter which he had received from the 5th Imam, thus: “I find no young men who are suitable and fitted to be husbands for my daughters. What then is my duty?” In answer the Imam wrote: “Do not wait until you find young men who are exactly to your liking in all respects. For our Holy Prophet said: ‘If you do not find young people to wed your daughters who correspond with your personal desires, have regard only to their character, especially their morals and their religion, and let the qualifications you require in husbands for your daughters be faith and morals alone, since with these a young man makes a satisfactory husband; and if you choose someone without these qualifications you are personally responsible for misleading and perverting your young people.”

Thus Islam not only does not put obstacles in the way of matrimony, but turns this force of nature to the advantage of society and of the individual for his physical wellbeing, mental health, calm of spirit and contentment of heart. Islam regards marriage as a sacred union of hearts, a source of serenity and security for both partners. To fulfil this function it needs the qualities of purity, loving-kindness, humanity, gentleness, goodness and faith in the depths of the heart. As it is written in Sura XXX: “Rome” verse 21: ” Amongst God’s signs for you is this, that He created mates for you from among yourselves for you to dwell with in tranquillity. It is He who put love and compassion between you. Verily in these are signs for those who reflect.”

Islam lays down clear rules to govern the relationships within the family. Sura IV Nisa’a -“The Women” calls marriage “the firm bond” and is concerned throughout the first 42 verses with the practical details of the contract of marriage and its fulfillment.

The sense of belonging together is nourished. Fairness governs the share each partner gives and takes in the compact. Each gives according to their ability and each takes according to their need. As Sura 11: Baqara -“The Heifer” affirms in verse 228: “Wife and husband, women and men, have reciprocal and commensurable rights according to what is equitable.”

Islam pays the closest and most meticulous attention to the capacities of each sex with regard to their occupation, profession and work. The man has the duty of being the breadwinner and providing for material needs and the production of things. The woman is the housekeeper with the duty of providing for the family’s needs and for the production of new people, for nursing the new generation and caring for the upbringing of posterity. Islam recognises the natural consequences of the way a woman is made, and will not allow her to be demeaned or degraded in any way; but preserves her from the wickedness of those who would lead her astray into corruption, and confers upon her a dignity, both at home and out of doors, which is worthy of her calling. It is of course possible that in an emergency a woman may be called to undertake tasks outside her home. But Islam seeks to avoid the kind of contacts between the sexes in the course of their employment which could turn fellowship into familiarity and comradeship into concupiscence. Therefore women must not dress in a provocative or enticing fashion nor titillate men’s sexual lusts so that the madness which leads to promiscuity of intercourse is aroused.

Like any other institution, the family and its home needs a responsible head. Without a firm hand at the helm a family can drift in confusion. Either the wife or the husband must therefore take the lead, and nature shows that in general it is more fitting for the man to steer, even if in exceptional cases the woman must take command.

The man, in accepting the responsibility of the household, its livelihood, its wellbeing, its children and their care, merits the authority of a head, because his greater strength, perseverance and endurance make him more fitted than the woman to carry the heavy burden of safeguarding the family from collapse and confusion. Further, woman is a creature of emotion, and quicker to be swayed by feelings. Woman is more ruled by her heart and man more by his head. So Islam gives the prime responsibility to the person of reason, precisely as Article 213 of the most recent constitution of France does. At the same time, Islam lays down that teamwork, partnership, consultation and joint planning are to be the rule. The man is on no account to be left free to pursue his self-willed desires regardless. He must definitely never tyrannise over his wife or abuse or bully her. It is written in Sura IV Nisa’a -“The Women’. verse 19: “Believers! You may not take over a brother’s widow without her consent. You may not treat your wives harshly. You may not goad wife into suing you for a khula’ (divorce) by which she has to a part of the dower which you gave her – save only if she be guilty of forfeit lewd conduct. Nay! live with your wives in kindness and equity. Should you dislike them for something, that very thing may be a point through which God will bring much blessing.”

The husband, in shouldering the burden of external affairs for the support of the family has full control of everything relevant to his task. But inside the walls Of the home the wife is in full control, and hers is the duty of arranging the details of daily living, the disposition of the household effects and the upbringing of the children. The Prophet said: “The man is the breadwinner responsible for the family, while the wife has the responsibility for the house and for her husband and for the children.-‘ (Majmoo’ wa ram p.6/ Collections and Remains.)

Modern disrespect for the bond of marriage is due to the negligence of this high conception of wedlock. Instead it has been degraded by a mass of petty dreams and twisted imaginations. Men’s thinking about marriage was in ruins before their families began to fall apart. Too many have entered on the married state without a thought for the importance of harmony of mind and spirit between man and wife. Fortune hunters, Casanovas, women-chasers prizing a pretty face above all else, have pushed the spiritual values out of sight and trodden their own best interests underfoot.

The prevalence of such badly founded families forebodes a tragic future. The deep incompatibility of thought between man and wife sets them as far apart as the poles. The gap between them gapes wider daily. Contentment and peace of heart flee from them. They get on each other’s nerves. The harmony which ethical values, unselfishness and human affection bring, as both sides do all they can to strengthen the spiritual life of each other, departs. A family must be founded firmly on due consideration of the environmental conditions, the proper setting for the wife, and the compatibility of the partners’ ways of thinking and of their moral standards. Marriage must be thought of as holy and basic. Only from this correct viewpoint can the inevitable difficulties of living together be satisfactorily settled.

Islam has paid due attention to all the deleterious consequences of wrongly based marriage, its divisions and unhappiness. It therefore founds the family not on fortune or passion or outward beauty or any material things, but on faith and virtue, and chastity and purity and spiritual qualities and affections, and piety both in the man and ID the woman. The Prophet is reported to have said: “Whosoever takes a wife merely because of her beauty will never find what he sought in her. Whose takes a wife solely for her fortune, the Lord will abandon him. Seek therefore a wife whose beauty is that of faith and whose fortune is purity of living.” (Vassa’el, Vol. 3, p.6.)

In the book “Man la yahdhur” (p.209), “There is no institution more beloved than marriage” is stated as Islam’s policy for matrimony. Persons who seek to avoid founding a family on unreasonable or false grounds are sternly rebuked, and condemned for every form of pretext to which they resort for perverting the God-given force of sex from its proper use. In the book “Safeene al-Bahar” (Vol. 1, p.561), we read: “Wedlock and matrimony belong to my religion. Whosoever protests against this way of life excludes himself from my religion and is not one of mine.” Similarly Islam is against the wedding of people who lack the qualities of personality and the excellences of spirit which are required: and against wedding into families which do not profit from religious upbringing in moral standards. As is written in the “Vassa’el” – chapter 7 of the .’Book of Wedlock” “the Prophet in a sermon said: Avoid beautiful plants and flowers which grow by the side of filthy and polluted waters.’ The Prophet was asked: ‘O Prophet of Allah! what is a plant by a stagnant pool?’ He replied: A beautiful woman brought up in a perverse family that has not known the restraints of instruction’.”

It is natural that consorts who are not brought up on absolute moral standards and religious laws can never be sure of true family happiness and blessedness. The fruit of such marriages can only be delinquent children, rough, violent, without serenity or security of spirit. Therefore Islam, to ensure the happiness of both parties, lays particular stress on matters of morals and of mentality. It is to guard against the production of a generation that is corrupt and perverted that Islam seeks to avoid matrimony with members of families that are polluted and degraded.

If young people, at the moment when they have to choose their life’s partner, would do so in accordance with Islamic rules and regulations instead of only looking at externals, and weigh the realities which are vital to happiness, setting aside false thinking inspired by polluted passions that so swiftly pass, there is no doubt that the unhappiness and family disasters brought on family life by the devotees of sexual freedom and permissiveness would all very rapidly disappear into thin air. Yet some of today’s youth have been taught that a trial-marriage, to see if a couple suit each other in intercourse, is the right way and the ideal preparation for happy life-partnership. How can they think that a brief experience of a fleeting pleasure of two bodies can plumb the depths of the spiritual qualities, mental abilities, moral gifts and personality-traits of another soul? To expect to found an eternal relationship on a few moments of pleasure is a nonsensical piece of illogic. That should be enough to condemn it out of hand, quite apart from all the moral and spiritual damage which such temporary liaisons cannot fail to cause. The inner qualities of a personality only appear in a long period of a shared life. It is the ever-changing scene and stage of their living together which reveals the truth of two partners’ inward nature to each other. Patience, forbearance, equanimity, steadiness, contentment, selflessness, self-sacrifice are discovered when life’s pressures crowd in on the soul. How can brief moments of rest and fun and trips a deux penetrate to the deep ethical characteristics? Can a visit to the cinema or some other place of entertainment reveal their true selves to a couple? Indeed, in trial-marriages both partners try to conceal their bad sides and put on a good mask to fool each other.

Can a young man in the heat of passion make a decision which is the most fateful of his life? Can a trial-marriage ensure that there is no difference in spirit and no weak point in their relationship? And how can a young person ruled by the conditions of his years when the inclination to satisfy sexual instincts is so strong. weigh the essential conditions for a sound marriage dispassionately and detachedly? How can he be sure that quarrels and differences will not arise in the future?

It is for this reason that Islam recommends that, before the final signing of a marriage contract, the young people should meet each other and talk; but also, and far more important, they should get an assessment of their proposed partner’s character and tastes and traits and capacities from independent observers who are able to judge from long acquaintance.

Or, since the family happiness depends in the first place on the equality of the relations between man and wife in their shared life, the firmer the spiritual and ethical bonds the surer the happiness of the household and the greater its ability to stand the shocks of life in selfless self-sacrifice and union. This is why the Prophet said. .”‘Best of my people is the man who shows his family not harshness but perfect kindness and goodness.” (Moral Excellence. p.247 “Makarem-ul-Akhlaq”.) And again (“Man la yahdhur” p.625): “Best amongst you is he who treats his family well: and I am kindest of all to my own family.” Similarly the wife should treat her husband with kindness, and this is called her .”Sacred Jehad” (Tafseer-ad-Dorr al-manthoor .”Gems of Wisdom”).

One of the sad obstacles to early marriages today is the difficulty which finance poses for young people. Provision of the marriage portion, expensive ceremonies, the high cost of houses, and a dozen other extravagant charges are too much for the average youth. Islam insists , that the state should take steps to enable these difficulties to be overcome in the interests of the institution of matrimony. The book “Gems of I Wisdom” reports the Prophet of Islam as saying: “It is an auspicious and beneficent act that the bride’s family should make their demands for dowry and terms of the marriage contract mild and lenient.”

Excessive demands may reveal not only that the bride’s family but possibly also the bride herself is grasping and hard. The chapter on marriage portions in the book ‘”Vassa’el” tells the following story. One day the Apostle of God was seated with the assembly of his companions when a young woman rushed in and after the customary courteous salutations said: “O Apostle of God I want a young husband.” The Prophet turned to all those present and asked: “Has anyone an inclination to take this woman to wife?” One man said he was willing. I The Prophet asked what dowry he would give. He replied: “I have nothing I can give.” So the Prophet said. “No!” The woman returned on a later occasion and requested to be married. No one replied. Finally the same young man who had no fortune or property at his disposition made a sign, and the Prophet addressed him thus: “Do you know the Qur’an?” He said: “Sure!” The gracious Apostle then decreed: “I will marry you to this woman at the price of the dowry which will consist in your teaching her a portion of the Qur’an every day.”

Islam therefore refuses to recognise that financial difficulties may put obstacles in the way of young people’s matrimony. It allows indigent and needy persons to found families by law. Islam regards fear of poverty and of involvement as false excuses for avoiding the divine law of life in wedlock, and says that Providence knows a family’s needs and will not let them fall into deprivation.

It is written in Sura XXIV: Nur-“Light”, verse 32: “Provide the means by which worthy and fitting persons who have no spouse may marry. If they are poor and indigent God out of His gracious care will supply their needs.”

Of course hard work and industry is the way in which a man should supply his needs. When a man undertakes the responsibilities of matrimony, in order to make both ends meet he must increase his activities and his hard work. This is one of the functions of marriage in raising the standard of living for the whole of society.

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